Full-Wave Simulation and Analysis of Bistatic Scattering and Polarimetric Emissions From Double-Layered Sastrugi Surfaces
作者:Xu, P (Xu, Peng)[ 1 ] ; Chen, KS (Chen, Kun-Shan)[ 1 ] ; Liu, Y (Liu, Yu)[ 1 ] ; Shi, JC (Shi, Jiancheng)[ 1 ] ; Peng, C (Peng, Chong)[ 1,2 ] ; Jiang, R (Jiang, Rui)[ 1,2 ] ; Zeng, JY (Zeng, Jiangyuan)[ 1 ]
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
卷: 55 期: 1 页: 292-307
出版年: JAN 2017
In this paper, a physically based numerical electromagnetic approach, by solving Maxwell's equations, is developed to investigate the scattering and the emission from double-layered media, where both the top and bottom interfaces are random sastrugi surfaces with a random horizontal shift between the two corresponding negative-slope facets of both interfaces. Numerical simulations are illustrated for bistatic scattering and four Stokes parameters at L-, C-, X-, and K-bands. Results indicate that the bistatic scattering and Stokes parameters are asymmetric for the double-sastrugi media, whereas for the other two structures, sastrugi surface alone and sastrugi surface with a planar bottom boundary, their scattering and the first two Stokes parameters are even symmetric relative to the azimuthal angle of 90 degrees, and the third and fourth Stokes parameters are odd symmetric. In particular, the Stokes results no longer have the strong coherent fluctuations in angular variations shown in periodic double-layered structures because the random double-layered structure eliminates the coherent interference. It is interesting to observe that the internal total reflection may cancel if the coupled interactions between the two sastrugi interfaces are very strong, which results in decreasing scattering at the L-band, and its Stokes parameters are similar to those of the sastrugi alone. Numerical results also reveal that the maxima of cross-polarized specular scattering from double-sastrugi structures can be observed at cross incidence; however, they are at a deep dip for the latter two statistical symmetric structures. The sastrugi-sastrugi structure, being geometrically anisotropic, is capable of generating strong cross-polarized scattering and, subsequently, significant amounts of the third and fourth Stokes. The azimuthal patterns, at a viewing angle of 55 degrees, of four Stokes parameters, although more complex, are feature rich where two striking extrema of third and fourth Stokes are presented. Compared with the L-band, the C-band presents strong azimuthal dependence of four Stokes. The simulation results offer deeper insights into the scattering and emission process in sastrugi surface and may lead to better retrieval of surface parameters from radar or radiometric measurements.
通讯作者地址: Chen, KS (通讯作者)
Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Remote Sensing Sci, Inst Remote Sensing & Digital Earth, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
[ 1 ] Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Remote Sensing Sci, Inst Remote Sensing & Digital Earth, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
[ 2 ] Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China